Laman

Sabtu, 21 Januari 2012

Materi Kelas X semester 2

Chapter I
Expressions

I.1 Expression of Congratulating and Complimenting
·         Expression of Congratulating
J Please accept my warmest congratulations.
J I'd like to be the first to congratulate you on ….
J It was great to hear ….
J Congratulations on your ….
J I must congratulate you.
J May I congratulate you on ….
J Congratulations!
J Congratulations on your ….
J Well done!
J Fantastic/terrific

F The Example of dialogue:
Harsya : What a great Motorcycle you have, Pandu.
Pandu  : Thank you, Harsya. I just finished modifying it.
Harsya : You mean this is the old motorcycle that you used to
  drive to school?
Pand    : Yes, it is.
Harsya : It looks a lot different. What did you do to it?
Pandu  : Not much. I had it paint with a brighter colour and add
  some new accessories.
Harsya : Great job!
Pandu  : Thanks.

·         Expression of Complimenting
J May I say how elegant you look.
J I f I may so, you are quite charming.
J My compliments on your beautiful.
J I really must express my admiration for your party.
J You are looking good.
J What a charming dress!
J That's a very nice coat!
J You look nice.
J I like your hair style!
J You're terrific/fantastic.

F The example of dialogue:
Andi had passed on his final semester test. On the way home, he meets Desi, his friend. She congratulates and compliments Andi.
Desi     : Hi, Andi. How are you doing?
Andi    : I am fine, thanks.
Desi     : It's very nice to meet you here, Andi. You look great
  today! I love your new hair style.
Andi    : Thank you very much, Desi. You look great, too.
Desi     : Thanks, Andi. By the way, how was your test?
  Have you got the result?
Andi    : Yes, I've got it. You know what? I have passed for the
 final test. I'm so happy right now.
Desi     : That's great. Congratulations! How's the score?
Andi    : Thanks God. I got the highest score for the test.
Desi     : Wow, that's amazing. I know you are very smart, Andi.
  Well done!
Andi    : Thanks for your compliment, Desi. You are so kind.
Desi     : Never mind Andi. It's my pleasure.

I.2 Expression of Gratitude
J  I would like to thank you for ....
J  Let me express my gratitude ....
J  Thank you.
J  Thanks.

I.3 Expression of Invitating
·         Expression of inviting someone
J I’d like to invite you to ...
J Would you like to ...?
J Will you join ...?
J Do you want to come with ...?

·         Expression of accepting invitation
J I’d be delighted to ....
J Yes, I’d like to very much.
J I won’t say no ....
J I’d love to.

·         Expression of declining invitation
J I’d love to, but I have to do something.
J Maybe next time.
J Sorry, I can’t.

F The example of dialogue
Ardi     : I'm going to the museum on Sunday morning.
  Would you like to come with me?
Ratna   : I'd love to. Will you pick me up?
Ardi     : Sure. Be ready at 7, OK?
Ratna   : All right.
After visiting the museum, on the way home, Ratna invites
Ardi to have dinner together.
Ratna   : Are you free tonight?
Ardi     : Why?
Ratna   : I wonder if you would like to have dinner at my house.
Ardi     : I won't say no. I'll be there.

I.4 Expression of Surprise and Amazment
J  I must say that ... surprises me.
J  I find it astonishing/extraordinary.
J  I find that very surprising.
J  How very surprising/amazing.
J  Well, that's very surprising.
J  Really?
J  My goodness!
J  Are you serious?
J  You're kidding!
J  That's amazing/extraordinary.

F The example of dialogue
Wati chats with her best friend, Ria, at the school canteen. They talk about Ari who is the most favourite student in their school.
Wati    : Do you know that Ari has a girlfriend?
Ria       : Are you kidding? That's not true.
Wati    : Listen, I got the news from his best friend, Frans.
Ria       : That's too bad. Yesterday, he gave me a bar of chocolate.
Wati    : It doesn't mean that he loves you. Oh, come on. He's not
  the only guy in the world. Take it easy.
Ria       : Yeah, you're right. Besides, I don't have time to think
  about love right now.
Wati    : You're right. Let's go to the class. The bell is ringing.

Chapter II
Text

II.1 Narrative Text
·         Purpose/Social Function:
To entertain/to amuse the readers.
·         Generic Structure:
Orientation – Complication – Resolution
·         The example of Narrative text (Fable)

The Legend of Beowolf
Once upon a time, there was a horrible monster called Grendel. He was half-man and half-monster. He lived in Denmark. One day, he went to the King's castle. The king and his men tried to kill the monster but their swords were useless. A knight called Beowulf heard about the problem and went to Denmark to help the king.
That night, Beowulf and his men took off their armour and put away their swords and went to sleep. The monster came into the castle and killed a knight. Beowulf woke up and fought the monster-he pulled off an arm! Grendel went back to his home in a lake and died. Grendel's mother was very angry and the next night she went to the castle and killed a knight.
In the morning, Beowulf went to the lake. He killed Grendel's mother with a special sword. When he came back, the king was very happy and he gave Beowulf presents and money.
Beowulf went back to his country and became a king. He was king for fifty years. But one day, a dragon came to his country, and it attacked people. It lived in a cave with treasure. The dragon was very big and breathed fire. The knights were afraid and they did not want to fight the dragon. King Beowulf was an old man but he put on his armour again and went to the dragon's cave with his men.

Answer the questions based on the story.
1.        Who was half-man and half-monster?
2.        Were the king and his men succeed in killing Grendel? Why?
3.        Why did Beowulf come to Denmark?
4.        What did Beowulf do to Grendel when he fought him?
5.        What happened to Grendel after he fought Beowulf?
6.        What did Grendel's mother do when she find out about her son's death?
7.        What did Beowulf use to kill Grendel's mother?
8.        How long did Beowulf become king?
9.        What attacked the people in Beowulf's country?
10.    What did Beowulf do about it?

II.2 Descriptive Text
·         Purpose/Social Function:
To describe particular things, person, or place.
·         Generic Structure:
Identification – Description
·         The example of Deescriptive

Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls is a famous area of waterfalls. It is one of the most beautiful natural wonders of North America. It is on the Niagara River, about halfway between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The Niagara River forms part of the border between Canada and the United States. At Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada is on one side of the river, and the U.S. state of New York is on the other side.
Niagara Falls really has two waterfalls. The Horseshoe Falls are in Canada, and the American Falls are in the United States.
The Niagara River drops into a steep gorge or canyon, at the falls. Most of the water flows over the Horseshoe Falls. They are not as high as the American Falls, but they are 2,600 feet (792 metres) wide–about 0.5 mile (0.8 kilometre). The American Falls are about 1,000 feet (305 metres) wide. Beyond the falls are the Whirlpool Rapids. There, the powerful swirling water has carved a bowl out of the  rock.
At night, coloured lights shine on the thundering falls. About 10 million people visit Niagara Falls each year.

Answer the qustions based o the text.
1.        Where is Niagara Falls located?
2.        What countries are separated by Niagara Falls?
3.        Where are the two waterfalls of Niagara Falls?
4.        What is Canyon?
5.        How big are the Horseshoe Falls?

II.3 News Item
·         Purpose/Social Function:
to inform the readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered news everything or important.
·         Generic Structure
Newsworthy events – Background events – Sources
·         The example of News Item Text:

Murphy Starts New Year with Marriage

LOS ANGELES: Actor Eddie Murphy celebrated New Year’s Day by tying the knot with film producer Tracey Edmonds, their representatives told People magazine.
The pair exchanged vows Tuesday on a private island off Bora Bora in French Polynesia in front of a small group of family and friends, the magazine reported.
Murphy and Edmonds began dating last year and were engaged in July.
Murphy, 46, has fi ve children from his marriage to Nicole Mitchell Murphy, who fi led for divorce in 2005. He also has a daughter with Spice Girls singer Melanie Brown.
Edmonds, 40, has two sons from her 13-years of marriage to singer Kenneth “Babyface” Edmonds. As head of Edmonds Entertainment group, Inc., she has produced the fi lm and television series Soul Food.
Murphy’s fi lm credits include Dreamgirls, the Beverly Hills Cop, The Nutty Professor, Shrek, and Dr. Doolitle movies.
Adapted from: The Jakarta Post, January 4, 2008
Question
1.      Where did Murphy and Edmonds hold the wedding?
2.      Who is Murphy’s ex-wife?
3.      Who is Kenneth “Babyface”?
4.      How many children do Murphy and Edmonds have after their marriage?
5.      Mention Murphy’s fi lm credits.
Chapter III
Grammar

III.1 Passive Voice

To be + Past participle (V3)


Tenses
Active Voice
Passive Voice
Present Simple
Write
Is written
Present Continuous
Is writing
Is being written
Past Simple
Wrote
Was written
Past Continuous
Was writing
Was being written
Present Perfect
Has written
Has been written
Past Perfect
Had written
Had been written
Present Future
Will write
Will be written
Conditional
Would keep
Would be kept
Perfect Conditional
Would have written
Would have been written
Present Infinitive
To write
To be written
Perfect Infinitive
To have written
To have been written
Present Participle/Gerund
Writing
Being writing
Perfect Participle
Having written
Having been written

Examples:
1.        She writes a story.
à A story is written by her.
2.        She is writing a story.
àA story is being written by her.
3.        She wrote a story.
àA story was written by her.
4.        She was writing a story.
àA story was being written a story by her.
5.        She has written a story.
àA story has been written by her.

III.2 Preposition
Pre            à depan
Position     à posisi
ð  Diletakkan di depan kata benda
ð  The example of using preposition:
1.      At is used with times and also with places: at Niagara Falls, at midnight, at lunch, at Jln. Soka no.11.
2.      In is used with periods of time and also with places: in October, in 2005, in the Middle Ages, in the United States, in Canada, in the park.
3.      On is used with dates and days and also with places: on Niagara River, on June 18, on Monday, on the wall.
4.      Of is used with nouns and also with -ing forms: legs of the table, glance of eye, of making.
5.      Off is used with verbs: get off, take off, put off.
6.      After/before is used with period of times, with pronouns and also with -ing forms: before winter, before June, after summer, after lunch time, after me, before him, after reading, before asking.
7.      For is used with a period of time: for one hour, for a week, for ages.
8.      For is also intended to be given to or belong to a particular person: The Great Sphinx was probably built for Khafre.
9.      During is used with a period of time: during our holiday, during the night.
10.  While is used with subject + verb: while you went out, while she was at the bank.

III.3 Question Tag
Examples:
1.        I study English everyday, don’t I?
2.        He doesn’t drink coffee, does he?
3.        They wrote a story, didn’t they?
4.        I will go abroad, won’t I?
5.        She can’t speak Chinese, can she?
6.        We have driven this car, haven’t we?
7.        I am not a teacher, am I?
8.        I am a writer, aren’t I?

III.4 Reported Speech/Indirect Speech

Perubahan Tenses

Direct Speech
Indirect
Simple Present
Simple Past
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Present Prefect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Simple Past
Past Perfect
Past Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous

Perubahan Waktu

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Now
Then, at that time, at that moment
Today
That day
Tonight
That night
Yesterday
The day before, the previous week
Last week
The previous week
Two months ago
The previous two month
Tomorrow
The day after, the following day
Next month
The following month

Perubahan Demonstrative Pronoun     Perubahan Modals

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
This
That

Modal 1
Modal 2
These
Those

Will
Would
That
The

Can
Could
Those
The

May
Might

·         Examples:
1.      Mother said, “I water the flowers.”
Mother said that she watered the flowers.
2.      Father said, “I am drinking a cup of coffee now.”
Father said that he was drinking a cup of coffee then.
3.      They said, “We have learned English since 2009.”
They said that they had learned English since 2009.
4.      Mira said, “I went to Jakarta last month.”
Mira said that she had gone to Jakarta the previous month.
5.      Bobby said, “I was watching TV last night.”
Bobby said that he had been watching TV last night.

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar