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Kamis, 04 Agustus 2011

Contoh Soal TOEFL

Directions: In this section, you will read a number of passages.  Each one is followed 1 -20, choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), and (D), to each question.  Then, find the number of question on your answer sheet, and fill in space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.  Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.

Questions 1 through 10 are based to following passage.
Elizabeth Blackwell was born in England in 1821 and emigrated to New York City when she was ten years old.  One day she decided that she wanted to become a doctor.  That was nearly impossible for a woman in the nineteenth century.  After writing many letters seeking admission to medical schools, she was finally accepted by a doctor in Philadelphia.  So determined was she that she taught school and gave music lesson to earn money for her tuition.
In 1849, after graduation from medical school, she decided to further her education in Paris.  She wanted to be a surgeon, but a serious eye infection forced her to abandon the idea.
Upon returning to the United States, she found it difficult to start her own practice because she was a woman.  By 1857, Elizabeth and her sister, also a doctor, along with another female doctor, manage it open a new hospital, the first for women and children.  Besides being the first female physician in the United States and founding her own hospital, she also established the first medical school for women.
1.      Why couldn’t Elizabeth Blackwell realize her dream of becoming a surgeon?
a.       She couldn’t get admitted to medical school.
b.      She decided to further her education in Paris.
c.       A serious eye infection halted her quest.
d.      It was difficult for her to start a practice in the United States.
2.      What main obstacle almost destroyed Elizabeth’s chances for becoming a doctor?
a.       She was a woman.                               c. She couldn’t graduate from medical school.
b.      She wrote too many letters.                  d. She couldn’t establish her hospital.
3.      How many years elapsed between her graduation from medical school and the opening of her hospital?
a.       8          b. 10                c. 19                d. 36
4.      All the following are “firsts” in the life of Elizabeth Blackwell EXCEPT…
a.       She became the first female physician in the United States.
b.      She was the first woman surgeon in the United States.
c.       She and several other women founded the first hospital for women and children.
d.      She established the first medical school for women.
5.      How old was Elizabeth Blackwell when she graduated from medical school?
a.       10        b. 21                c. 28                d. 36
6.      The word “abandon” in that text is closest in meaning to…
a.       Undertake        b. Give up        c. Continue      d. Look into
7.      What is the main idea of this passage?
a.       Elizabeth Blackwell overcome serious obstacles to become the first woman doctor in the United States.
b.      Elizabeth Blackwell had to abandon her plans to become a doctor because of an eye infection.
c.       Elizabeth Blackwell even taught music to pay for her medical studies.
d.      Elizabeth Blackwell founded the first medical school for women.
8.      The word “founding” in that text most nearly the same as…
a.       Locating           b. Looking for             c. Establishing              d. Buying
9.      Why was it nearly impossible for Elizabeth Blackwell to get into medical school?
a.       She had a serious eye infection.
b.      She had little or no money to pay tuition.
c.       She wanted to be part of a profession that no woman had ever entered before.
d.      Her family didn’t want her to be a doctor.
10.  The reason Elizabeth Blackwell could not become a surgeon is explained in lines…
a.       4-5       b. 8-9               c. 11-13                       d. 14-15

Questions 11 through 20 based on the following passage.
Glands manufacture and secrete necessary substance.  Exocrine glands secrete their products through ducts, but endocrine glands, or ductless glands, release their products directly into the bloodstream.
One important endocrine gland is the thyroid gland.  It is in the neck and has two lobes, one on each side of the windpipe.  The thyroid gland collects iodine from the blood and produces thyroxine, an important hormone, which it stores in an inactive form.  When thyroxine is needed by the body, the thyroid gland secretes is directly into the blood-stream.  Thyroxine is combined in the body cells with other chemicals and effects many functions of the body.
Thyroid gland may be underactive or overactive, resulting in problems.  An underactive thyroid causes hypothyroidism, while an overactive one causes hyperthyroidism.  The former problem, called myxedema in adults and cretinism in children, causes the growth process to slow down.  A cretin’s body and mind do not grow to their full potential.  Hyperthyroidism is an increase in heart action and other problems.
Either hypothyroidism or hyper thyroidism may result in goiter, or an enlarged thyroid gland.  A goiter will appear when the body is not getting enough iodine.  Goiter is less common today, since most people use iodized salt.
11.  The Thyroid gland is called an endocrine gland because it..
a.       Has ducts         c. Secrets directly into the bloodstream
b.      b. Has lobes     d. Is located in the neck
12.  The word it in second paragraph refers to….
a.       Thyroxine        b. Blood           c. Iodine          d. Thyroid gland
13.  A cretin is….
a.       A child with hyperthyroidism
b.      An adult with an underperforming thyroid gland
c.       A young person with hypothyroidism
d.      An extremely irritable child
14.  Which of the following is the probable result of the myxedema?
a.       Sluggishness                c. Overproduction of thyroxine
b.      Hyperactivity               d. Perspiration
15.  The word “former” in the third paragraph refers to…
a.       Hypothyroidism                       c. Hyperthyroidism
b.      Overactive thyroid                   d. Secretion
16.  A goiter is…
a.       A person with myxedema                    c. An underactive thyroid gland
b.      A swollen thyroid gland                                   d. A chemical
17.  Exocrine and endocrine glands are distinguished from each other by whether they…
a.       Secrete through ducts or without ducts.
b.      Cause hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism
c.       Cause myxedema or cretinism
d.      Result in an enlarged or shrunken goiter
18.  In the first sentence, the word “secrete” is closest in meaning to…
a.       Indiscernible                b. Emit             c. Display                    d. Absorb
19.  If a thyroid is not working enough, the illness is known as..
a.       Hyperthyroidism          b. Hyperactivity           c. Excretion                 d. Absorb
20.  The main idea of the passage is….
a.       Hoe glands work
b.      The function and illness of the thyroid gland
c.       Secretion with and without glands
d.      The illness of an overactive thyroid
21.  The function of the thyroid gland is described in paragraph…
a.       1                      b. 2                  c. 3                  d. 4

Questions 22 through 30 are based on the following passage.
A recent investigation by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey shows that strange animal behavior might help predict earthquakes.  Investigators found such occurrences within a ten-kilometer radius of the epicenter of a fairly recent quake.  Some birds screeched and flew about wildly; dogs yelped and ran around uncontrollably.
Scientists believe that animal can perceive environmental changes several hours or even days before the mishap.  Animals were noted as being restless for several weeks before a Tashkent, Uzbekistan earthquake.  An hour before the disaster, domestic animals refused to go indoors, and dogs howled and barked furiously.
In 1960, an earthquake struck Agadir in Marocco.  Survivors recall that stray animals, including dogs, were seen streaming out of town before the earthquake.  In a safari zoo near San Francisco, Ilamas would not eat the evening before a 1979 quake, and they ran around wildly all night.
Unusual animal behavior preceding earthquakes has been noted for centuries.  British Admiral Robert Fitzroy reported huge flocks of screaming seabird over Concepcion, Chile, in 1835.  An hour and a half later, dogs were seen fleeing, and ten minutes later the town was destroyed.
Similar stories of stories of chickens running around apparent states of panic, horses trembling, an dogs barking incessantly were recorded throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by survivors of earthquake destruction in India, Yugoslavia, Peru, Mexico, and the United States.
In 1976, after monitoring bizarre animal behavior, the Chinese predicted a devastating earthquake.  Although hundreds of thousands of people were killed, the government was able to evacuate million of other people and thus keep the death toll at a lower level.
22.  What prediction may be made by observing animal behavior?
a.       An impending earthquake                    c. The ten-kilometer radius from the epicenter
b.      The number of people who will die     d. The fact that an earthquake has occurred
23.  The author implies that animals are aware of an impending earthquake because….
a.       Of their superior intelligence
b.      They have certain instinctive abilities to perceive that humans do not posses.
c.       They are generally closer to the epicenter that the human observers.
d.      They react to other animal behavior.
24.  The word “evacuate” in 19 is closest meaning to…
a.       Remove           b. Exile                        c. Destroy        d. Emaciate
25.  All of the following statements are true EXCEPT…
a.       Some animals may be able to sense an approaching earthquake.
b.      By observing animal behavior scientist perhaps can predict earthquakes.
c.       The Chinese have successfully predicted an earthquake and saved many lives.
d.      Only dogs and horses seem to posses the special perception that allows them to predict earthquake.
26.  In line 3, the word “epicenter” is nearest in meaning to…
a.       Stratosphere                 b. Contour       c. Periphery                 d. Core
27.  The passage implies that if scientists can accurately predict earthquakes, there will be…
a.       Fewer animals going crazy                   c. Fewer people evacuated
b.      A lower death rate                               d. Fewer environment changes
28.  In line 18, “devastating” means most nearly the same as….
a.       Destructive      b. Voracious                c. Intense         d. Forthcoming
29.  The main idea of this passage is that…
a.       Earthquake can be prevented by observing animal behavior.
b.      Scientists can interpret animal behavior
c.       Observing animal behavior can help people prepare for earthquakes
d.      People need to prepare animals for earthquake.
30.  Where in the reading is it explained that the phenomena of animals’ reacting to earthquakes have been reported for hundreds of years?
a.       9          b. 10                c. 11                d. 12

Questions 31 through 39 are based on the following passage.
As far as 700 B.C., people have talked about children being cared for by wolves.  Romulus and Remus, the legendary twin founders of Rome, were purported to have been care for by wolves.  According to legend, Mars fathered the two boys.  As a result, a relative of their mother imprisoned her and ordered that the boys be drowned in the Tiber River.  However, a shoe-wolf saved them from this horrible fate and took back lair to care for them.  Legend has it that when a she-wolf loses her litter, she seeks a human child to take its place.
This seemingly preposterous idea did not become credible until the late nineteenth century when a French doctor actually found a naked ten-years-old boy wandering in the woods.  He didn’t walk erect, could not speaks intelligibly, nor could he relate to people.
He only growled and stared at them.  Finally, the doctor won the boy’s confidence and began to work with him.  After many long years of devoted and patient instruction, the doctor was able to get the boy to clothe and feed himself, recognize and utter a number of words, and write letters and form words.
31.  The French doctor found the boy
a.       Wandering in the woods                      c. Growing at him
b.      At this doorstep                                   d. Speaking intelligibly
32.  In line 5, the word “litter” means most nearly the same as
a.       Garbage           b. Master          c. Offspring     d. Hair
33.  The doctor was able to work with the boy because
a.       The boy was highly intelligent             c. The boy liked to dress up
b.      The boy trusted him                             d. The boy was dedicated and patient
34.  The word “utter” in line 12 is nearest in meaning to
a.       Absolute                      b. Speak           c. Scream                     d. Read
35.  All of the following statements are true EXCEPT
a.       She-wolves have been said to substitute human children for their lost litters.
b.      Examples of wolves’ caring for human children can be found only in the nineteenth century
c.       The French doctor succeeded in domesticating the boy somewhat
d.      The young boy never was able to speak perfectly
36.  The word “preposterous” in line 7 is closest in meaning to
a.       Dedicated        b. Scientific                 c. Wonderful               d. Absurd
37.  The main idea of this passage is that according to legend
a.       Children who are raised by wolves can be rehabilitated
b.      She-wolves replace their dead offspring with human children
c.       Romulus and Remus were cared by a she-wolf
d.      A French doctor saved Romulus and Remus from drowning
38.  According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were
a.       Found abandoned in Rome                  c. Discovered by French doctor
b.      The founders of Rome                                    d. Drowned in the Tiber River in 700 B.C
39.  Where in the passage is it states that, according to legend, Romulus and Remus founded Rome?
a.       1-2                   b. 3-4               c. 5-6               d. 7-8

Questions 40 through 50 based on the following passage
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterial organism that has been isolated from sea water, shellfish, finfish, plankton, and salt springs.  It has been major cause of food poisoning in Japan, compelling the Japanese to do several studies on it.  They have confirmed the presence of V.parahaemolyticus in the north and central Pacific, with the highest abundance in inshore waters, particularly in or near large harbors.
A man named Nishio studied the relationship between the chloride content of sea water and the seasonal distribution of V.parahaemolyticus are concluded that while the isolation of the organism was independent, the distribution of the bacteria in sea water was dependent of the water temperature.
In fact, it has been isolated in High frequencies during summer, from June to September, but was not isolated the same frequency in water.
Within four or five days after eating contaminated foods, a person will begin o experience diarrhea, the most common symptom; this will very often be accompanied by stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting.  Headache and fever, with or without chills, may also be experienced.
40.  Which of the following locations would be most likely to have a high concentration of V.parahaemolyticus?
a.       A bay               b. A sea                       c. The middle               d. Sediment
41.  The word “inshore” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
a.       Near the coast              b. Deep                        c. Active          d. Cold
42.  The word “it in line 9 refers to
a.       Vibrio Parahaemolyticus                      c. Sodium Chloride content
b.      Sea water                                             d. Water temperature
43.  The safest time for eating seafood in north Pacific is probably
a.       August             b. November                c. July              d. September
44.  The most common symptom of V.parahaemolyticus poisoning is
a.       Nausea             b. Diarrhea       c. Vomiting                  d. Headache and fever
45.  The word “this” in line 12 refers to
a.       Contaminated foods                c. A person
b.      Symptom                                 d. Diarrhea
46.  The incubation period for this illness is
a.       2 to 3 days                   c. 4 to 5 days
b.      3 to 4 days                   d. several months
47.  In line 11, “contaminated” is closest in meaning to
a.       Ocean              b. Tainted        c. Salty             d. Cooked
48.  Nishio’s study showed
a.       The presence of V. parahaemolyticus was dependent on neither the salt content nor the water temperature
b.      The presence of V. parahaemolyticus was dependent only on the salt content
c.       The presence of V. parahaemolyticus was independent of both the water temperature and the salt content
d.      The presence of V. parahaemolyticus was dependent on the water temperature
49.  The word “cramps” in line 12 means most nearly the same as
a.       Noises              b. Toxicity       c. Severe pain              d. High temperature
50.  The word “isolation” in line 7 is closest in meaning to
a.       Conjunction                 b. Impurity                   c. Separation                d. Discovery 

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